Being affected by a kidney problem can be a severe issue, especially since it requires frequent attention and medical treatment. Getting replacement kidneys can be quite a problem, since there are long waiting lines for organ donation and there are also issues with regard to the body accepting the replacement organ. Also, based on previous cases where the replacement organ could be coming from a body / cadaver that had some sort of communicable disease, there is a check for some of the more common diseases before the transplant takes place.
But, one wonders about what can happen in the below case ? Here, when the donor (who was a living person) was checked for diseases, the person checked out fine. But, after the transplant took place, it was found that the recipient was suffering from AIDS, and investigation revealed that the transplanted organ was in fact responsible for the disease (link to article):
In 2009, a patient with hemodialysis-dependent kidney failure was given a new kidney from a living donor at a New York City hospital - known in the report as "Hospital A". There was no trace of any STIs (sexually transmitted infections) in the individual's medical history, neither was there any history of high-risk activity, such as injection drug use or sexual encounters with injection drug users.
The patient had received blood transfusions in 2006, but none before that date. 12 days before the transplantation procedure started, the recipient tested negative for HIV. After the operation the patient went through multiple hospitalizations, fevers, episodes of renal insufficiency, and evaluation of possible transplanted organ rejection. The recipient did not take part in any behaviors which might have increased his/her risk of becoming infected with HIV.